Quantum Physics

A video book on Quantum Physics you can find here

Gravity

Discover the Gravity Effects and Relativity

Life on Other Planets

Life Beyond Earth! All about the Eart-like Planets

Strange Phenomena

What Science cannot explain is a Strange Phenomena!

Renewable Energies

How to improve life on Earth? Explore Renewable Energy.

Sunday, October 19, 2014

The Angular Momentum and The Spin of a Particle

When we face first time with Quantum Mechanics one of the new concept to understand is how works the Angular Momentum and the Spin of a Particle.

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

Spin is one of two types of angular momentum in quantum mechanics, the other being orbital angular momentum. Orbital angular momentum is the quantum-mechanical counterpart to the classical notion of angular momentum: it arises when a particle executes a rotating or twisting trajectory (such as when an electron orbits a nucleus).

The existence of spin angular momentum is inferred from experiments, such as the Stern–Gerlach experiment, in which particles are observed to possess angular momentum that cannot be accounted for by orbital angular momentum alone. In some ways, spin is like a vector quantity; it has a definite magnitude, and it has a "direction" (but quantization makes this "direction" different from the direction of an ordinary vector). All elementary particles of a given kind have the same magnitude of spin angular momentum, which is indicated by assigning the particle a spin quantum number. The SI unit of spin is the joule-second, just as with classical angular momentum. In practice, however, it is written as a multiple of the reduced Planck constant ħ, usually in natural units, where the ħ is omitted, resulting in a unitless number. Spin quantum numbers are unitless numbers by definition. When combined with the spin-statistics theorem, the spin of electrons results in the Pauli exclusion principle, which in turn underlies the periodic table of chemical elements.

Video. Angular Momentum and Spin


Friday, October 17, 2014

The Temple of Baal Discovered. It's Probably a Ancient Cult Complex discovered in Israel

Archaeologists working in Israel have discovered an "ancient cult complex," where people who lived thousands of years ago might have worshipped a Canaanite “storm god” known as Baal.
The complex was unearthed at the archaeological site of Tel Burna, located near the Israeli city of Kiryat Gat. It's believed to date back 3,300 years and to be the Temple of Baal.
Though more excavation needs to be conducted, the archaeologists said the site is believed to be quite large, with the courtyard of the complex measuring more than 50 feet on one side.
Researchers said the site has already yielded artifacts that seem to confirm the complex’s cultic past. These include enormous jars that may have been used to store tithes, masks that might have been used in ceremonial processions, and burnt animal bones that hint at sacrificial rituals.
Itzhaq Shai, director of the Tel Burna Excavation Project, told Live Science that it wasn't entirely clear which god the complex was dedicated to. But he called Baal -- which ancient Middle Eastern cultures worshipped as a fertility god -- the "most likely candidate.” Another possibility, according to UPI, is that members of the cult worshipped a female god, like the ancient war goddess Anat.
Excavation work at Tel Burna has been going on since 2009, and members of the public have a standing invitation to help out.
"Unlike most excavations, we are looking for people come to participate for even just a few hours," Shai told Fox News in 2013. " Hopefully they will be captivated and come back."

Saturday, October 11, 2014

Siberian craters and Bermuda Triangle. Mystery Solved?

Experts claim underground gas explosions caused the deep holes to appear in Siberia. Earlier this year, mysterious giant craters appeared in Siberia and now scientists claim an underground gas explosion was to blame. They examined the largest crater and found evidence of gas hydrates.

The Theory could also explain why planes and boasts have vanished in the region known as the Bermuda Triangle. This is a hypothesised region on the west of the North Atlantic Ocean.

Many, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, claim the Bermuda Triangle is a myth.

But now, after probing the largest of the craters, scientists said the they were most likely created by underground gas explosions.

'Heating from above the surface due to unusually warm climatic conditions, and from below, due to geological fault lines, led to a huge release of gas hydrates,' reported The Siberian Times - citing scientists from the Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum-Gas Geology and Geophysics in Novosibirsk.

BERMUDA TRIANGLE IS A MYTH, SAYS NOAA

US Government agency The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Noaa) said that foul weather and poor navigation are likely to blame for any mishaps in the area between Miami, Bermuda and Puerto Rico.

Dozens of ships and planes have mysteriously vanished in the area.

But Noaa said the number of vehicles missing there is no different to elsewhere in the world - and the theory that some mysterious supernatural force is sinking boats and planes is a myth.

'There is no evidence that mysterious disappearances occur with any greater frequency in the Bermuda Triangle than in any other large, well-traveled area of the ocean,' the agency stated on its website in February.

Gas hydrates are ice-like forms of water containing gas molecules, notably methane.

They exist in permafrost regions such as northern Siberia, but also under the oceans in some parts of the world.

'The main element - and this is our working theory to explain the Yamal crater - was a release of gas hydrates,' said scientist Vladimir Potapov.

'It turned out that there are gas hydrates both in the deep layer which on peninsula is several hundred metres down, and on the layer close to the surface.

'There might be another factor, or factors, that could have provoked the air clap. Each of the factors added up and gas exploded, leading to appearance of the crater.'

He stressed that the crater is located on the intersection of two tectonic faults. Yamal peninsula is seismically quiet, yet the area of the crater looked into had quite an active tectonic life.

'That means that the temperature there was higher than usual,' Mr Potapov said.

Crucially, recent warm summer weather has melted gases trapped in layers just below the surface.

The explanation of the formation of the Siberian Crater and the Bermuda Triangle Myth unveiled


The explanation for the formation of this crater might also explain the disappearance of boats and planes in the area referred to as the Bermuda Triangle, according to the experts.

The area stretches from the British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean to the Florida coast, to Puerto Rico.

Russian scientist Igor Yeltsov, the deputy head of the Trofimuk Institute, said: 'There is a version that the Bermuda Triangle is a consequence of gas hydrates reactions.

'They start to actively decompose with methane ice turning into gas. It happens in an avalanche-like way, like a nuclear reaction, producing huge amounts of gas.

'That makes the ocean heat up and ships sink in its waters mixed with a huge proportion of gas.

Thursday, May 8, 2014

Predator-Prey Population Cycles Reversed by Evolution of Species

The canonical view of predator-prey relationships was first identified by mathematical biologists Alfred Lotka and Vito Volterra in the 1920s and 1930s.

It says:
Populations of predators and their prey usually follow predictable cycles. When the number of prey increases -- perhaps as their food supply becomes more abundant -- predator populations also grow. When the predator population becomes too large, however, the prey population often plummets, leaving too little food for the predators, whose population also then crashes.
But all bets are off if both the predator and prey species are evolving in even small ways, according to a new study published this week in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. When both species are evolving, the traditional cycle may reverse, allowing predator populations to peak before those of the prey. In fact, it may appear as if the prey are eating the predators.

Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have proposed a theory to explain these co-evolutionary changes. And then, using data collected by other scientists on three predator-prey pairs -- mink-muskrat, gyrfalcon-rock ptarmigan and phage-Vibrio cholerae -- they show how their theory could explain unexpected population cycles. The new theory and analysis of these co-evolution cycles could help epidemiologists predict cycles of disease and the virulence of infectious agents, and lead to a better understanding of how population cycles may affect ecosystems.

Evolution is often perceived as an historical event, noted Weitz, who also has a courtesy appointment in the Georgia Tech School of Physics. But organisms are evolving continuously, with certain phenotypes becoming dominant as environmental and other conditions favor them. In organisms such as birds or small mammals, those changes can be manifested in as few as ten generations. In microbial species with brief lifespans, evolutionary changes can happen within days or weeks.

Evolutionary changes can dramatically affect relationships between species, potentially making them more vulnerable or less vulnerable. For instance, if a mutation that confers viral resistance in a species of bacteria becomes dominant, that may change the predator-prey relationship by rendering the bacteria population safe from harm. More generally, co-evolutionary cycles can arise when predator offense is costly and prey defense is effective against low offense predators.

Source: esciencenews.com

Sunday, May 4, 2014

10 Unsolved Mysteries of Science

Science has its fundament and method in trying to understand Nature through deeper investigations of Nature istself. But sometime some unexplicable things happens and we call those things Mysteries, i.e. the phenomena that now we cannot explain but that are willing to be.

Here is a list of 10 Unsolved Mysteries of Science waiting for an explanation.

What Is Earth's Hum?
WHAT WE KNOW When seismic instruments listen for earthquakes, they also pick up vibrations from storms moving over the planet's surface and waves crashing along the world's coastlines. This generates Earth's constant, distinct seismic hum. WHAT WE DON'T KNOW There remain some mystery sounds, including a rhythmic buzz emanating from the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean, the sources of which have not been identified.

Why Do Humans And Ants Have So Much In Common?
WHAT WE KNOW Ants, like humans, exist in societies--some warlike, some peaceful--where individuals play specific roles. Ants wage war, enslave each other, and even carry out a form of agriculture. 
WHAT WE DON'T KNOW Ants and people both owe their success to a high level of social dependency. Somehow, both organisms must have evolved with this growing cooperative advantage, but the details of that evolution remain fuzzy at best. 

How Can Cancer Be Such A Biologically Unlikely Event, And Still Be So Common?
WHAT WE KNOW Cancer forms from mutations to DNA, but not just any mutations: The DNA has to mutate in a way that turns off the cell's ability to detect its own mutations, and in a way that allows the cell to keep functioning. WHAT WE DON'T KNOW Researchers have identified several genes involved in the mutations leading to cancer, but haven't figured out how to target those genes in a way that stops the cancerous cells from spreading.

What Is The Circadian Clock?
WHAT WE KNOW Somewhere deep in your brain, there's a master clock ticking away, keeping the regular patterns of daily life on track.WHAT WE DON'T KNOW Researchers are trying to find out how that master clock synchronizes with the trillions of cells in your body, each of which keeps time on its own local chemical clock.

Why Do We Have Fingerprints?
WHAT WE KNOW The grooves on our fingers help us grip wet surfaces and sense texture. WHAT WE DON'T KNOW Fingerprints do not--as scientists long assumed--help us grip dry objects.

Do Immortal Creatures Exist?
WHAT WE KNOW Scientists have recovered a 250-million-year-old bacterial spore from a salt crystal and found a Caribbean jellyfish that can regenerate its body repeatedly and then revert back to an immature state when it gets old. WHAT WE DON'T KNOW The mechanisms that allow some organisms to exist indefinitely in a dormant state (like the bacterial spore), or to reverse its age, remain a mystery.

How Do Migrating Animals Find Their Way Back Home?
WHAT WE KNOW Some turtles follow tiny traces of soil carried by ocean currents from distant islands. Other turtles, and some birds, appear to have slightly magnetic compounds that allow them to navigate using Earth's magnetic field. WHAT WE DON'T KNOWScientists don't know exactly how birds use the magnetic field to navigate. 

What Triggers Reversals Of Earth's Polarity?
WHAT WE KNOW The motion of liquid iron in Earth's outer core generates a magnetic field that protects us from space's high-energy particles. Every few hundred thousand years, the poles reverse--what was north becomes south, and vice versa. WHAT WE DON'T KNOW Scientists don't know exactly how liquid in the outer core is moving, how it generates a magnetic field, or how changes in the motion bring about reversals.

Why Do Cats Purr?
WHAT WE KNOW Cats are the only animals that purr. The purr when they're experiencing pleasure, and also when they're in distress or pain. WHAT WE DON'T KNOW Several theories exist for why cats purr. They could be purring for social reasons--to get the attention of humans, maybe, or to forge bonds with their offspring or mother. Some research suggests that purring has restorative properties.

How Long Can Trees Live?
WHAT WE KNOW Researchers have dated some bristlecone pines in California's White Mountains to an age of more than 4,800 years.WHAT WE DON'T KNOW Aspen trees make clones of themselves to build colonies. One such colony, named "Pando," is estimated to be upward of 80,000 years. Some researchers think that clonal colonies could perpetuate forever under the right conditions.

Can Evolution Outpace Climate Change?
WHAT WE KNOW Evidence from the geologic record suggests that climate change has contributed to several mass-extinction events in Earth's past. WHAT WE DON'T KNOW The climate is changing faster than most species evolve, but no one knows for sure how much more warming there will be. Under the worst-case scenario, the planet could lose as much as 60 percent of its species in the next century. 

Friday, April 25, 2014

Earth Size Compared to the Largest Known Stars

Mankind has always thought Earth is at the center of the Universe. Actually Earth is less than a grain of sand when compared to the known Celestial Body of the Universe.


If we compare Earth to the largest known star; VY Canis Majoris. It has a diameter of about 1,975,000,000 kilometres, and is about 3,900 light-years distant from Earth.

A gif can help to understand!


Saturday, September 21, 2013

The Moon Seen From a Beautiful Perspective

I always like Moon pictures, especially the one when you can distinguish the craters, moon seas. But this time the Moon was captured from a stunning perspective ever!

Enjoy the giant Moon and the Black pearl.

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