Quantum Physics

A video book on Quantum Physics you can find here

Gravity

Discover the Gravity Effects and Relativity

Life on Other Planets

Life Beyond Earth! All about the Eart-like Planets

Strange Phenomena

What Science cannot explain is a Strange Phenomena!

Renewable Energies

How to improve life on Earth? Explore Renewable Energy.

Thursday, May 8, 2014

Predator-Prey Population Cycles Reversed by Evolution of Species

The canonical view of predator-prey relationships was first identified by mathematical biologists Alfred Lotka and Vito Volterra in the 1920s and 1930s.

It says:
Populations of predators and their prey usually follow predictable cycles. When the number of prey increases -- perhaps as their food supply becomes more abundant -- predator populations also grow. When the predator population becomes too large, however, the prey population often plummets, leaving too little food for the predators, whose population also then crashes.
But all bets are off if both the predator and prey species are evolving in even small ways, according to a new study published this week in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. When both species are evolving, the traditional cycle may reverse, allowing predator populations to peak before those of the prey. In fact, it may appear as if the prey are eating the predators.

Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have proposed a theory to explain these co-evolutionary changes. And then, using data collected by other scientists on three predator-prey pairs -- mink-muskrat, gyrfalcon-rock ptarmigan and phage-Vibrio cholerae -- they show how their theory could explain unexpected population cycles. The new theory and analysis of these co-evolution cycles could help epidemiologists predict cycles of disease and the virulence of infectious agents, and lead to a better understanding of how population cycles may affect ecosystems.

Evolution is often perceived as an historical event, noted Weitz, who also has a courtesy appointment in the Georgia Tech School of Physics. But organisms are evolving continuously, with certain phenotypes becoming dominant as environmental and other conditions favor them. In organisms such as birds or small mammals, those changes can be manifested in as few as ten generations. In microbial species with brief lifespans, evolutionary changes can happen within days or weeks.

Evolutionary changes can dramatically affect relationships between species, potentially making them more vulnerable or less vulnerable. For instance, if a mutation that confers viral resistance in a species of bacteria becomes dominant, that may change the predator-prey relationship by rendering the bacteria population safe from harm. More generally, co-evolutionary cycles can arise when predator offense is costly and prey defense is effective against low offense predators.

Source: esciencenews.com

Sunday, May 4, 2014

10 Unsolved Mysteries of Science

Science has its fundament and method in trying to understand Nature through deeper investigations of Nature istself. But sometime some unexplicable things happens and we call those things Mysteries, i.e. the phenomena that now we cannot explain but that are willing to be.

Here is a list of 10 Unsolved Mysteries of Science waiting for an explanation.

What Is Earth's Hum?
WHAT WE KNOW When seismic instruments listen for earthquakes, they also pick up vibrations from storms moving over the planet's surface and waves crashing along the world's coastlines. This generates Earth's constant, distinct seismic hum. WHAT WE DON'T KNOW There remain some mystery sounds, including a rhythmic buzz emanating from the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean, the sources of which have not been identified.

Why Do Humans And Ants Have So Much In Common?
WHAT WE KNOW Ants, like humans, exist in societies--some warlike, some peaceful--where individuals play specific roles. Ants wage war, enslave each other, and even carry out a form of agriculture. 
WHAT WE DON'T KNOW Ants and people both owe their success to a high level of social dependency. Somehow, both organisms must have evolved with this growing cooperative advantage, but the details of that evolution remain fuzzy at best. 

How Can Cancer Be Such A Biologically Unlikely Event, And Still Be So Common?
WHAT WE KNOW Cancer forms from mutations to DNA, but not just any mutations: The DNA has to mutate in a way that turns off the cell's ability to detect its own mutations, and in a way that allows the cell to keep functioning. WHAT WE DON'T KNOW Researchers have identified several genes involved in the mutations leading to cancer, but haven't figured out how to target those genes in a way that stops the cancerous cells from spreading.

What Is The Circadian Clock?
WHAT WE KNOW Somewhere deep in your brain, there's a master clock ticking away, keeping the regular patterns of daily life on track.WHAT WE DON'T KNOW Researchers are trying to find out how that master clock synchronizes with the trillions of cells in your body, each of which keeps time on its own local chemical clock.

Why Do We Have Fingerprints?
WHAT WE KNOW The grooves on our fingers help us grip wet surfaces and sense texture. WHAT WE DON'T KNOW Fingerprints do not--as scientists long assumed--help us grip dry objects.

Do Immortal Creatures Exist?
WHAT WE KNOW Scientists have recovered a 250-million-year-old bacterial spore from a salt crystal and found a Caribbean jellyfish that can regenerate its body repeatedly and then revert back to an immature state when it gets old. WHAT WE DON'T KNOW The mechanisms that allow some organisms to exist indefinitely in a dormant state (like the bacterial spore), or to reverse its age, remain a mystery.

How Do Migrating Animals Find Their Way Back Home?
WHAT WE KNOW Some turtles follow tiny traces of soil carried by ocean currents from distant islands. Other turtles, and some birds, appear to have slightly magnetic compounds that allow them to navigate using Earth's magnetic field. WHAT WE DON'T KNOWScientists don't know exactly how birds use the magnetic field to navigate. 

What Triggers Reversals Of Earth's Polarity?
WHAT WE KNOW The motion of liquid iron in Earth's outer core generates a magnetic field that protects us from space's high-energy particles. Every few hundred thousand years, the poles reverse--what was north becomes south, and vice versa. WHAT WE DON'T KNOW Scientists don't know exactly how liquid in the outer core is moving, how it generates a magnetic field, or how changes in the motion bring about reversals.

Why Do Cats Purr?
WHAT WE KNOW Cats are the only animals that purr. The purr when they're experiencing pleasure, and also when they're in distress or pain. WHAT WE DON'T KNOW Several theories exist for why cats purr. They could be purring for social reasons--to get the attention of humans, maybe, or to forge bonds with their offspring or mother. Some research suggests that purring has restorative properties.

How Long Can Trees Live?
WHAT WE KNOW Researchers have dated some bristlecone pines in California's White Mountains to an age of more than 4,800 years.WHAT WE DON'T KNOW Aspen trees make clones of themselves to build colonies. One such colony, named "Pando," is estimated to be upward of 80,000 years. Some researchers think that clonal colonies could perpetuate forever under the right conditions.

Can Evolution Outpace Climate Change?
WHAT WE KNOW Evidence from the geologic record suggests that climate change has contributed to several mass-extinction events in Earth's past. WHAT WE DON'T KNOW The climate is changing faster than most species evolve, but no one knows for sure how much more warming there will be. Under the worst-case scenario, the planet could lose as much as 60 percent of its species in the next century. 

Friday, April 25, 2014

Earth Size Compared to the Largest Known Stars

Mankind has always thought Earth is at the center of the Universe. Actually Earth is less than a grain of sand when compared to the known Celestial Body of the Universe.


If we compare Earth to the largest known star; VY Canis Majoris. It has a diameter of about 1,975,000,000 kilometres, and is about 3,900 light-years distant from Earth.

A gif can help to understand!


Saturday, September 21, 2013

The Moon Seen From a Beautiful Perspective

I always like Moon pictures, especially the one when you can distinguish the craters, moon seas. But this time the Moon was captured from a stunning perspective ever!

Enjoy the giant Moon and the Black pearl.

The Theory of Evolution for Dummies

The Theory of Evolution by Darwin is the change in the inherited characteristics of biological populations over successive
generations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organization, including species, individual organisms and molecules such as DNA and proteins.

According to the Theory of Evolution by Darwin all life on Earth is descended from a last universal ancestor that lived approximately 3.8 billion years ago. Repeated speciation and the divergence of life can be inferred from shared sets of biochemical and morphological traits, or by shared DNA sequences. These homologous traits and sequences are more similar among species that share a more recent common ancestor, and can be used to reconstruct evolutionary histories, using both existing species and the fossil record. Existing patterns of biodiversity have been shaped both by speciation and by extinction.

Thursday, September 19, 2013

The Planet Earth will be Liveable for 1.75 billion years. Then We will go to Mars

A group of American scientists led by Andrew Rushdie has studied the life of the 'liveability' of the
planet Earth. Waiting to enter the 'hot zone' of the sun, humans could deteriorate the environment and become extinct long before. For this reason we are looking for other alternatives and it seems that the Red Planet Mars is the favorite.

Based on the Sun distance and on the conditions required to keep water in liquid state, a research made by the University of East Anglia in Britain, has decreed that life on Earth will be still possible for other 1.75 billion years. After the Earth will enter the "hot zone" of the Sun causing the evaporation of the water and the extinction of life .

Saturday, September 14, 2013

IgNobel consigned at Harward

Created in 1991 by the magazine ' Annals of improbable research ' , the IgNobel are delivered annually by genuine Nobel Laureates at a ceremony that takes place at Harvard University. This year there was also the Peace Prize, awarded jointly to the president of Belarus, Alexander Lukashenko , for having declared illegal applaud in public, and the to the Belarusian Police for having " arrested a man with one arm applauding ".

For Security Engineering the prize went to an American researcher, Gustavo Pizzo , who invented a system to trap the would-be hijackers aircraft, shut them up in a package and send them directly into the hands of the Police. A team from Great Britain, Netherlands and Canada was awarded for a study on  Probability Calculus which established that the longer it takes for a Cow to lie down, so it is more likely to rise quickly standing up, researchers also found that once the Cow gets up , it is highly unlikely to be able to predict when the Cow will lie down again.
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